Biofertilizers are products made from plant remains and beneficial soil microorganisms, mainly fungi and bacteria that live in symbiosis with plants, helping to nourish them and improve soil quality, achieving a perfect environment for crop growth.
It must be said that these are fundamental for a more sustainable agriculture, as they are respectful with the soil and nature.
The microorganisms that make up the biofertilizers are capable of fixing atmospheric nitrogen, as well as solubilising different nutrients in the soil, making them available to plants. All this, through a natural process, extracting the elements from the soil itself and making them available to the plants.
These microorganisms, known as PGPR, Plant growth Promoting Rhizobacteria, are bacteria that live in the rhizosphere and colonise plant roots, positively influencing plant development. It is a classification that encompasses all bacteria capable of increasing plant growth.
In addition, they are also capable of producing different phytohormones, and substances such as siderophores, which are responsible for making certain microelements, such as iron, available to plants.
Within the family of biofertilizers, there are several types, such as:
-Nitrogen fixers: these are formed by bacteria of genera such as Rhizobium, Azotobacter and Azospirillum, which have their natural habitat in the soil. All of them have the capacity to fix nitrogen in plants, partially substituting the application of synthetic nitrogen.
-Phosphorus solubilisers: Compounds based on bacteria found in the rhizosphere, such as Bacillus subtilis, certain Pseudomonas, or the fungus Penicillium bilaji, which reduce the pH of the soil and create the necessary conditions for the dissolution of phosphorus.
-Phosphorus binders: Based on fungi such as mycorrhizae, which attach themselves to the roots of plants, thus improving the absorption of water and nutrients from the soil, as well as the defence against pathogens. In addition, mycorrhizae promote phosphorus uptake.
Plant growth promoters: These are based on micro-organisms that produce growth-regulating substances for plants, such as cytokinins (Proteus, Klebsiella, Escherichia, Pseudomonas, Xanthomonas, etc.), gibberellins (certain species of the Bacillus genus), auxins and even ethylene.
In addition, mention can also be made of
– Rhizosphere protection: some strains of fungi and bacteria of genera such as Bacillus or Pseudomonas can even generate antibiotics that protect the roots against pathogenic micro-organisms.
Advantages and Benefits
Biofertilizers have a multitude of advantages and benefits. Among them are the following:
- Increased soil fertility and biodiversity, thanks to the development of beneficial microorganisms.
- Increased uptake of water, nutrients and minerals, thanks to the fixation of carbon in the soil and the recovery of soil organic matter, as well as the increase in root reach provided by mycorrhizae.
- Improved soil structure and soil utilisation.
- Reduction of soil degradation.
- Increased agricultural production.
- Lower production costs.
- Greater environmental protection by reducing the use of chemical fertilisers.
- Use of organic waste.
LIDA Biofertilizers: BIOFORCE Range
At LIDA Plant Research, we have the Bioforce range of biofertilizers, consisting of products such as Rental Bioforce, Amonite and Trilobite:
Rental Bioforce: This is a solution based on microorganisms, algae and humic extract. The synergy between humic acids from leonardite and seaweed is enriched in this special formulation with selected strains of Trichoderma harzianum and Bacillus.
Amonite: Nitrogen fixer, based on Azotobacter chroococcum. Its benefits include improving the physico-chemical and biological characteristics of the soil and obtaining higher crop yields.
Trilobite: Phosphorus and Potassium Solubiliser, with Nitrogen Fixer. This is a biofertiliser based on a concentrate of rhizobacteria that colonise the roots of plants and live in symbiosis with them, helping them in their natural nutrition process, as well as regenerating the soil, increasing its fertility.